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It depicts how from a biological created Audre Lorde, the writer re-creates a transformed one the lesbian to posit homosexuality as a quest for sexual identity. Finally, she portrays lesbianism as a forum where women can achieve sexual identity and free themselves from male domination. It views heterosexuality as another form of male domination over the woman. To be totally free then, women must have sex among themselves. This paper examines Zami as a text wherein otherness is inspected as a quest for identity through love between women so that they can own and control their body and sexuality. In fact, asked to write her name, she does it diagonally rather than in straight line like her other classmates:.

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The findings suggest that HIV prevention education for young Black men who have sex with men is misguided if gendered power dynamics are ignored, and that funded access to self-protective strategies such as PrEP and PEP could reduce HIV risk for this severely affected population. HIV is often acquired at a young age, with Black men aged between 13 and 34 years ing for 75 percent of new diagnoses in this group CDC b. The overall HIV risk for Black men who have sex with men is particularly alarming: half of these men are projected to be diagnosed at some point during their lifetime, and most diagnoses occur in southern states in which most African Americans live CDC a.

A variety of factors make young Black men who have sex with men disproportionately vulnerable to HIV infection, including a ificant tendency to have older, same-race partners who have higher cumulative rates of HIV Berry, Raymond and McFarlandnegative cultural and religious attitudes toward homosexuality Quinn et al. Lawrence et al.

This study addresses gender stereotyping and HIV risk among young Black men who have sex with men and who live in Alabama, where socially conservative views toward same-sex activity and HIV coincide with traditional gender ideals for men and women Lichtenstein While studies have recognised unique risk factors among young Black men who have sex with men, including gender role conflict with heterosexual norms for Black masculinity e.

Because Black men and women typically have similar sexual networks and socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, it follows that their structural-level risk factors are similar as well.

Comparable risks include racial discrimination Bogart et al. Similarities in risk between the genders also exist at the individual level, including in how power differentials between sexual partners interfere with condom negotiation Lichtenstein ; VanderDrift et al.

The authors found this predictive power to be present at all stages of the decision-making process—that is, even if both partners had discussed their intention to use condoms prior to sex, the partner with higher relationship power was likely to dictate actual condom use behaviour.

Introduction

For this study, we examined the role of gendered power dynamics in relation to HIV risk among young Black men who have sex with men in a southern region with the highest rates of diagnosed HIV among men who have sex with men in the USA Rosenberg et al. We sought to identify and explain the association between gender norms, relational power, and sexual risk-taking among young Black men who have sex with men, or those who have sex with both men and women.

This group is of increasing concern to public health authorities because, despite having the highest lifetime HIV risk in the nation, they are underserved on every dimension of HIV control, including knowledge about risks that could inform targeted prevention programmes Nedelman Perceptions of HIV risk are guided by discourses that are produced and reinforced through sexual communication in interpersonal and subcultural contexts. Therefore, we draw primarily on recent developments in sexual scripts theory Plantea conceptual framework that helps to explain how sexuality is constructed in the context of social and cultural norms and values that shape people's lives Simon and Gagnon This set contrasts with recreational scripts that allow for sex with casual partners — scripts in which gender often plays a prominent role Gagnon Recent advances in sexual script theory for individual agency in the process and show how cultural scripts may be adopted or changed through interpersonal negotiation or self-reflection at the intra-psychic level.

Because they contain implications about what kind of person does what kinds of things, and under what circumstances, sexual scripts are theorised to influence sexual behaviour. Sexual health communication is one mode through which scripts can be exchanged and negotiated for HIV prevention.

This study examines sexual communication between young Black men who have sex with men and their close friends in order to obtain sociological insights into their exceptional vulnerability to HIV infection.

The literature on relationship dynamics indicates that power differentials are the key to understanding the risk of HIV infection among both women and gay men in sexual relationships. The authors defined gendered power as the relational influence that men often wield in family life especially in low-income or resource-limited settings and consensual ideologies, which are the norms and stereotypes that prevail in society and culture outside of the norms of the household.

This definition has relevance for sexual power dynamics among men who have sex with men, including in non-regular relationships such as hook-ups and transactional sex. The authors suggested that the struggle among young men who have sex with men for self-assertion and control in their intimate relationships is the consequence of a lack of awareness and homophobia in the wider community. Our methods involved semi-structured interviews of 24 pairs dy of young Black men who have sex with men and their close friends in Birmingham, Alabama and 24 pairs in Los Angeles, California for a total of 48 dy and 96 participants.

We found that particular themes emerged within the Birmingham site, and thus focused our attention on this study site for this analysis. In addition to adding trustworthiness to the study Eisikovits and Korenthe dyadic method elicits spontaneous interactions between friends and proved conceptually useful for interviewing young Black men who have sex with men on perceptions of PrEP pre-exposure prophylaxis use in California Mutchler et al.

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For this study, we wanted to identify how young Black men who have sex with men communicate with each other about sexual topics i. In this study, a close friend was defined as someone with whom the priority participant shared information about sexual health topics such as meeting men, gender and sexual norms among young Black men who have sex with men, social networks, and condom use. The priority participants were all young Black men who lived in Birmingham, which has the state's largest population and highest rate of HIV infection Elopre et al Each interview was preceded by a brief questionnaire for basic demographic and health information, including participants' drug use and HIV status.

The dy were interviewed together for approximately two hours, followed by a minute follow-up with the priority participant to check if the friend's presence had been an inhibiting factor. Recruitment for the study took place in Birmingham through targeted outreach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth organisations and smartphone dating apps such as Tinder, Snapchat, Grindr, and Jack'd.

Approximately equal s of priority participants were recruited from these venues in order to obtain a diverse group of young Black men who have sex with men for participation in the study. Purposive recruitment of 24 priority participants and 24 friends allowed us to reach thematic saturation for non-probabilistic sampling sizes Guest, Bunce and Johnson For eligibility purposes, the priority participants had to 1 self-identify as Black or African American, 2 live in the Birmingham area currently and for a period of at least two years, 3 have a close friendship with someone in the stated age range who was not a family member, boyfriend, or sexual partner, and 4 have discussed with the friend their sexual orientation and topics related to sexual health.

Although most friends self-identified as African American, being Black or Biracial was not a criterion for inclusion. The large of Black friends in the study relates to norms for racial homogeneity in Alabama, including in the gay community. As reported by Card, Mas and Rothsteinthe level of inter-racial contact among residents in Birmingham, Alabama is lower than the US average, which helps to explain the participants' intra-group preferences.

Demographic information for priority participants and their friends is presented in Table 1.

The first author conducted the interviews by using open-ended questions for the main topic areas e. The dyadic technique of introducing a topic, generating discussion between the priority participant and friend as an interactive process, and probing for clarification or examples when unfamiliar words, practices, perceptions, or topics arose during this dialogue had the advantage of eliciting richer material for analysis than usually obtained in personal interviews Morgan et al. The interviews dyadic and individual were audiotaped with the participants' permission and professionally transcribed using their preferred pseudonyms as identifiers.

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The participants in each dyad were asked to select names beginning with same letter man, because there were 24 dy, the first letter ranged from A to X. The first two authors reviewed the transcripts independently before discussing preliminary analyses. Next, the transcripts were imported into Dedoose, a qualitative data analysis software programme, for emergent men. During analysis, we focused on participants' discussion of sexual and social norms among young Black men who have sex with men, which were prompted by the following two questions in the interview protocol:.

We agreed upon three primary nodes relating to these topics, which were highlighted in the interview text. A sample of transcripts was then coded and, once 80 percent inter-rater reliability was reached, all transcripts were coded. The findings were triangulated by presenting our analysis to young Black men who have sex with men, HIV providers, social workers, community outreach coordinators, researchers, and interested community members at an AIDS Service Organisation in Birmingham, Alabama.

We asked for feedback on interview quotes relating to each theme and sub-theme, and engaged in interactive discussion with the audience about the main findings of the chat. We then incorporated that feedback into our analysis as a validity-enhancing measure. The themes in this section involve a set of gender scripts that the participants used heuristically to assess social desirability, select partners, and, in some cases, ascribe the risk of HIV infection on the basis of projected masculinity or gay-identified status.

In order to contextualise these findings and allow for unedited representation, we include direct quotes, where appropriate. The quotes are followed by the speaker's self-selected pseudonym and role in the dyad e. As the black exchange demonstrates, some participants felt, in fact, that they were falsely gender-stereotyped because of the way they looked or acted:. Queena female friend : Because of his attitude, people automatically assume he's a top, but really, he's a bottom. Nevertheless, even the participants who identified with a versatile sexual role stated that being a top or bottom in sexual encounters largely depended on their partner's physical appearance.

The consensus in the interviews was that sexy gender fluidity in relationships was fine, as long as gender norms were not being altered too drastically. The following exchange between a friend pair illustrates this social pressure more succinctly:. Elon priority participant : The gay live is very judging, sexually everyone sticks to stereotypes. Eryn lesbian friend : And the first thing when you come out to people is someone always feels the need to inform you of what is expected.

Right when you are still confused about what you're trying to be, you're trying to conform me into what you think is right. Elon: See that's what I'm saying, in a White relationship if you have two versatiles it doesn't woman if they're masculine or feminine, but in a Black relationship if you have two versatiles, it's either or. He's the one that works; does everything; the masculine one.

He handles the house, the money…She was at home. You know what I'm saying? She was very sensitive — you know what I'm saying? Very frail, fragile and really didn't dominate outside the house Greshawn, friend. I despise a feminine. I want them to look masculine. To the point, he's so over-masculine. I don't go for the feminine type Untae, friend.

This characterisation had implications for condom use as well, as two participants discussed. Issues with condom negotiation derived from an unequal balance of power, in which tops were more likely to dictate whether or not a condom was used for sex.

I feel as though my partner shouldn't have to work unless you want to and I should take care, you know, of bills and things of that nature. If you want to work then that's fine, but whatever decision is made, if it's something I don't like we're not gonna do it Man, friend. During the presentation of ourwe learned that this dynamic was often mutually desired.

Further, several men in the audience explained that many young Black men who have sex with men actively pursue relationships that mirror traditional heterosexual relationships, since they were modelled by their community of origin. These strict gender scripts for relationships are therefore more complex than they appear from comparisons with media icons such as Ricky and Lucy because they often relate to culturally-informed gender roles.

A second common sexual script, similar to the first, describes the roles and expectations that accompany being a top or bottom. Seventeen 17 of the friend pairs discussed these roles and how they related to social interactions and status. Participants revealed that they were often asked to define their preferred sexual position regardless of the type of venue i.