Housewives looking hot sex French Camp Mississippi

Francais sex search male african Chicago You


Years: 24
Hobby: Sex Swingers Seeking Man Looking For Woman Looking For A Personal Assistant And G F

This paper examines the experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, drawing on interviews with 18 women aged 18— Three primary experiences characterised this transition: puberty and emerging body awareness, spending time with boys, and having. Behavioural standards reinforcing ideal femininity were focused on dress, manner, and talk, and were particularly stringent for mothers.

About me

Much has been published in leading medical journals about the phenomenon of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 infection. The resulting condition, coronavirus disease COVIDhas had a societal effect comparable only to the Spanish flu epidemic of As the flow of clinical science has better informed the contemporary narratives, more is being learned about which individuals and groups experience the most dire complications.

However, a new concern has arisen: evidence of potentially egregious health care disparities is now apparent. I am an academic cardiologist; I study health care disparities; and I am a black man.

What is currently known about these differences in disease risk and fatality rates? The Johns Hopkins University and American Community Survey indicate that to date, of predominantly black counties in the US, the infection rate is Moreover, this death rate for predominantly black counties is 6-fold higher than in predominantly white counties.

Even though these data are preliminary and further study is warranted, the pattern is irrefutable: underrepresented minorities are developing COVID infection more frequently and dying disproportionately. Do these observations qualify as evident health care disparities?

The definition of a health care disparity is not simply a difference in health outcomes by race or ethnicity, but a disproportionate difference attributable to variables other than access to care. Data fully adjusted for comorbidities have not been reported but it is likely that some, if not most, of these differences in disease rates and outcomes will be explained by concomitant comorbidities.


But concerns go beyond these comorbidities. Where and how black individuals live matters. If race per se enters this discussion, it is because in so many communities, race determines home. Once adverse outcomes attributable to known risks for COVID complications are disaggregated from total morbidity and mortality burden due to COVID, the pernicious influence of adverse social determinants of health is likely to become apparent. Low socioeconomic status alone is a risk factor for total mortality independent of any other risk factors.

These social determinants of health must be considered in a complex equation, including known cardiovascular risk factors, which puts underrepresented minorities who live in at-risk communities at greater risk for disease, not just for cardiovascular diseases but now for COVID mortality. The most effective strategy known to reduce COVID infection is social distancing, but herein lies a vexing challenge.

Covid and african americans

Being able to maintain social distancing while working from home, telecommuting, and accepting a furlough from work but indulging in the plethora of virtual social events are issues of privilege. In certain communities these privileges are simply not accessible. The consequent infection and death rates due to COVID complications are no longer surprising; they should have been expected.

These observations are rooted in the recalcitrant reality of the deeply entrenched history of health care disparities and may settle as the most painful example yet of the regressive tax of poor health. What makes this particularly egregious is that unlike the known risk factors for which physicians and others can stridently offer clear advice regarding prevention, these concerns—the burden of ill health, limited access to healthy food, housing density, the need to work or else, the inability to practice social distancing—cannot be well-articulated as clear, pithy, and easily actionable items.

Chicago and illinois domestic violence agencies and organizations

What is the action plan? It is less an action plan and more of a commitment. A 6-fold increase in the rate of death for African Americans due to a now ubiquitous virus should be deemed unconscionable. This is a moment of ethical reckoning.

Or will the nation finally hear this familiar refrain, think differently, and as has been done in response to other major diseases, declare that a civil society will no longer accept disproportionate suffering? Public health is complicated and social reengineering is complex, but change of this magnitude does not happen without a new resolve.

Certainly, within the broad and powerful economic and legislative engines of the US, there is room to definitively address a scourge even worse than COVID health care disparities. It only takes will. It is time to end the refrain. Corresponding Author : Clyde W. Published Online: April 15, Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported. Additional Contributions: I thank Kristin T. Yancy and Nina M. Yancy for their review of the manuscript. Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

‘behaving well’: the transition to respectable womanhood in rural south africa

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details. Yancy CW. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience.

By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our Cookie Policy Continue. Save Preferences. Privacy Policy Terms of Use. Twitter Facebook. This Issue. ViewsCitations Comments 4.


View Metrics. Clyde W. Yancy, MD, MSc 1. Original Investigation. Mercedes R. Carnethon, PhD; Kiarri N. Kershaw, PhD; Namratha R. Nicholas P. Jewell, PhD; Joseph A. Lewnard, PhD; Britta L. Jewell, PhD. William F. Rishi K. Jonathan M. Back to top Article Information.

Published online March 25, Published online March 27, Published online April 6, Published online April 10, The coronavirus is infecting and killing black Americans at an alarmingly high rate. Washington Post. April 7, Chicago Tribune.

Chicago city, illinois

Published April 7, Accessed April 12, Deslatte M. Louisiana data: virus hits blacks, people with hypertension. US News World Report.

New York State Department of Health. COVID fatalities.

Updated April 11, Identifying the source of racial and ethnic disparities. Unequal Treatment. National Academies Press;